TFTP Implementaion In Linux


TFTP server is an important service for Network engineers, because they will be using this TFTP server for coping big IOS(Inter networking Operating System)files to routers, So as a Linux administrators we have to install and configure tftp server.

So why these network guys uses TFTP server for coping IOS images? why not ftp, scp, rcp etc?
Ans : Because TFTP user use UDP protocal for sending data, so its bit faster due to its unrelaiable way of sending data. So in early days one a serial port is connected between router and server so the data transmission is very slow, so they started using TFTP server as file server to copy images.

Here are the steps to configure TFTP server

Step1 :
Install TFTP server

#yum install tftp-server
#rpm -ivh tftp-server*

Here we have to make a note that TFTP, telnet, rsync, talk services are run under one single service Xinted.

Step2 : Configuring tfpt server

#cd /etc/xinetd.d
#vi tftp

Edit the tftp configuration file as follows, save it and exit.
[root@test xinetd.d]# vi tftp
# default: off
# description: The tftp server serves files using the trivial file transfer \
# protocol. The tftp protocol is often used to boot diskless \
# workstations, download configuration files to network-aware printers, \
# and to start the installation process for some operating systems.
service tftp
socket_type = dgram
protocol = udp
wait = yes
user = root
server = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
server_args = -s /tftpboot
disable = no
per_source = 11
cps = 100 2
flags = IPv4

In the above file what we have specified was please use protocol as UDP and server command, then tftp dump location(/tftpboot), its like ftp server dump(/var/ftp/pub)location then disable=no means TFTP service should be enabled other things no need to edit.

Step3 : Give full permissions to

#chmod 777 /tftpboot

Step4 : Restart the xinetd serive, so that the tftp server configs will be updated

#service xinetd restart

Step5 : Permanently on Xinetd service

#chkconfig xinetd on

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  • RPM Package Management-II (Checkinstall)


    Part2 :

    So coming to advanced RPM management here I am going to discuss how to convert .tar.gz/.tar.bz2 files,src.rpm files to rpm packages? So that its very much easy to install the packages by using rpm command.

    New releases of Linux programs are generally released in the tar.gz format consisting of source code of the application. Normally you will compile these programs but at times they throw some compiler errors on your screen which just seem gibberish to a novice. A much easier way to install programs is when they are in the RPM package format. Here’s a simple guide that will help you convert those source code files (tar.gz) into RPM packages.

    To do this, first of all install the package checkinstall from your Linux dvd. If it doesn’t exist then you can Google for it and download it. Then unpack your source package diand cd to the directory. Where you unpacked the tar.gz file.

    Step1 : Run the following two commands:

    ./configure make But now instead of running make install you run checkinstall. Answer the questions, edit some values if they are not appropriate and let the program run. When finished, you’ll find your RPM package in /usr/src/packages/RPMS/i686 your .rpm file is ready for future use.

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  • RPM Package Management - I


    Package management in Linux is very much tedious job when compared to windows systems. Basically if we consider windows its very much easy even for LKG student will install the packages(in windows we will call it as softwares) very much easy main windows software packages are .exe or .bat or .msi or .cab files we will just double click it will install the package for you with minimal system knowledge this is all about windows but coming to Linux its some what complex procedure to install a package below are some of the example ways you can install the packages.

    1. Through shell script

    2. .tar.bz2 or .tar.gz files

    3. .rpm files

    4. .deb files(These are the software packages for Debian flavor of Linux)

    5. YUM

    In order to install packages in Linux one should have depth and width of full concept then only we can troubleshoot the problems what we faced while installation so coming in to the topic directly I have divided this entire document in two parts

    One is dealing with basic installation of packages

    Second one is building rpm packages for your requirements like say for your architecture (i386,1686 AMD etc)

    PART1 : Basic rpm package management

    Example1 : For checking the package is install in your system or not

    #rpm -q package name #rpm -q httpd

    Example2 : For checking what are all the packages installed in your system

    #rpm -qa

    Here q stands for query and a stands for all

    Example3 : Installing a package

    #rpm -ivh packagename.versionno.arch.rpm (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

    Here I have to explain the above 4 thins

    (i)Indicates the package name

    (ii)Indicates the version number

    (iii)Indicates the architecture type (like i386,i686,i586,i486 etc)

    (iv)rpm extension

    Example4 : Upgreading the package

    #rpm -Uvh packagename.versionno.arch.rpm

    Example5 : Installing a package with out dependencies

    #rpm -ivh packagename.versionno.arch.rpm --nodeps

    Example6 : Installing a package when it is not able to install, if you want to install it forcefully

    #rpm -ivh packagename.versionno.arch.rpm --force

    Example7 : Installing a package with dependencies

    #rpm -ivh packagename.versionno.arch.rpm --aid

    These are some basic ways to install the packages in coming post I will discuss about some what advanced package management like creating rpm package compilation etc Happy linux.

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    Actually i am Google centric guy,who always romming around google google google to find out what Google is inventing day today. I am regular reader of and blogs, both the sites are totaly discuessing google releated information/hacks etc

    So comming to the point why i am saying all this to u? that too in my linux blog? any guesses?
    Ans : Today I found of some strange site from the above mentioned blogs ie
    This one kind of shell ie. google+shell= goosh where you can search the entire web/blogs/images, you name it you will get it by just typing commnds. When we log in to we will get the following prompt>

    So here we can type what ever you want to search with in the web. If you want to search only in blog we have to say blog then the prompt will change to the below thing>blog>

    So from now what ever you type this will seach in only blogs, if you want to know more about it just type help you will get all the help you want.>help


    web(search,s,w)[keywords]google web search
    lucky(l)[keywords]go directly to first result
    images(image,i)[keywords]google image search
    wiki(wikipedia)[keywords]wikipedia search
    clear(c)clear the screen
    help(man,h,?)[command]displays help text
    news(n)[keywords]google news search
    blogs(blog,b)[keywords]google blog search
    feeds(feed,f)[keywords]google feed search
    open(o)open url in new window
    go(g)open url
    more(m)get more results
    in(site)search in a specific website
    loadload an extension
    video(videos,v)[keywords]google video search
    read(rss,r)read feed of url
    place(places,map,p)[address]google maps search
    langchange language

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  • DNS Server Syntax Checking


    Checking named.conf file syntax once you have updated the named.conf file some times server will not start/run because some syntax errors like spaces, dots etc. Unnaccearsly in the named.conf file. Its very diffucult to find where is the error in named.conf files. So for that we can use

    named-checkconf #named-checkconf configurationfileloc

    Example : #named-checkconf /var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf

    When you execute above command it should show errors if any according to line number, so its very much easy to check where we did the mistake. Checking Zone file(both forword and reverse)

    Syntax : #named-checkzone domainname zonefileloc

    Example : #named-checkzone /var/named/chroot/var/named/example.frd example.frd is my forword zone file for my domain

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